What is acne and how does acne develop?
Your skin has tiny holes called pores that can be blocked by oil, bacteria, dead skin cells, and dirt. When this happens, you can develop a pimple. If your skin is repeatedly affected by this condition and you develop more red pimples or bumps, you may have acne.
There are different forms of acne:
- Acne vulgaris, also known as youth pimples because this is a common form of acne in adolescents and young adults.
- Acne fulminans is one of the forms of acne where you see an acute worsening of pre-existing acne.
- Acne neonatorum is a form of acne that is mainly seen in young children or newborns.
- Acne inversa, where lesions develop as subcutaneous inflammations in the skin of skin folds.
- Acne conglobata, often caused by the male hormone, is the form of acne that persists when acne has cleared up in adolescents and young adults.
Acne is one of the most common skin conditions in the Netherlands. While acne is not a life-threatening condition, it can be painful, especially if it's severe. It can also cause emotional distress. Many young people do not develop symptoms until later in life, when they have entered puberty. Acne on the face can affect self-esteem and self-esteem and can cause permanent physical scars over time. There are many effective treatments for acne that both prevent acne and reduce the risk of scarring. In this blog we will discuss this further.
What are the symptoms of acne?
Acne can be found almost everywhere on your body. The red pimples and red bumps usually develop on the face, around the mouth on the back and chest or on the shoulders. In places where bacteria can grow freely and where excessive sebum production plays a major role in the development of acne. When you have acne, you usually see pimples with a white or black head. Another word for blackheads comedones is used to name these pimples pustules and pimples. Blackheads form on the surface of the skin, giving them a black appearance due to oxygen in the air. Whiteheads are inflammations under the skin, giving them a white appearance. While blackheads are the most common lesion seen in acne, other types of acne can occur as well. Inflammatory lesions increase the risk of acne scarring. These include:
- Papules are small, red, raised bumps caused by inflamed or infected hair follicles.
- Pimples are small red pimples with pus on their ends.
- Nodules are firm, often painful nodules under the surface of the skin.
- Cysts are large nodules under your skin that contain pus and are usually painful.
What causes acne?
Acne occurs when the pores of the skin become clogged with oil, dead skin cells or bacteria. In particular, the bacterium propionibacterium acnes causes the symptoms of acne. Every pore of your skin is the opening to a follicle. The follicle consists of a hair and a sebaceous gland (oil). The oil gland releases sebum (oil), which flows through the hair, out of the pore and onto your skin. The sebum keeps your skin smooth and soft. One or more problems with this lubrication process can cause acne. It can occur when:
- too much oil is produced by your follicles (excessive sebum production)
- dead skin cells build up in your pores
- too much growth of bacteria that accumulate in your pores
These problems contribute to the development of pimples.A pimple appears when bacteria (propionibacterium acnes) grow in a clogged pore and the oil cannot escape
What are the risk factors for developing acne?
Myths about what contributes to acne are quite common. There are many facts and myths about acne. Many people believe that there is a relationship between acne and diet. foods with a high glycemic index such as chocolate or French fries are said to contribute to acne. While there is no scientific support for these claims, there are certain risk factors for developing acne. These include:
- The influence of hormones and hormonal changes caused by puberty or pregnancy. In particular, the male hormone testosterone plays a role in the development of acne.
- Certain medical devices, such as certain contraceptive pills or corticosteroids
- A diet rich in foods with a high glycemic index, sugars or carbohydrates, such as bread and chips
- Having parents who had acne
The people with a skin condition such as acne who are most at risk of developing it are adolescents and young adults. During this time, the body is subject to changes under the influence of hormones. These changes can cause excess sebum production, leading to an increased risk of acne. Hormonal acne related to puberty usually decreases or at least improves when you are an adult.
How is acne diagnosed?
If you have acne symptoms, your doctor can make a diagnosis by examining your skin. Your doctor will identify the types of lesions and their severity to make the best choice from the different acne treatments. Even then, the doctor can determine how many treatments are needed to prevent the acne symptoms from worsening.
How is acne treated?
There are a few self-care activities you can try at home to help prevent breakouts and clear up your acne. Home remedies for acne include:
- Prevent poor hygiene by cleansing the skin daily with a mild soap to remove excess oil and dirt
- Wash your hair regularly and keep it out of your face
- Use makeup that is water-based or labeled "non-comedogenic" (doesn't clog pores)
- No squeezing or picking pimples, which spread bacteria (propionibacterium acnes) and excess oil from excessive sebum production
- Do not wear hats or tight headbands
- Don't touch your face
Natural skin oils
Rhinicus oil also called castor oil has a cleansing effect and makes the skin free from pores. Due to the low molecular mass in the oil, it penetrates deeply into the skin and has a bactericidal effect. For this reason, castor oil is a good remedy for (mild) acne and gives dry skin and sensitive skin a fresh tone. To treat mild acne complaints, dab some pure castor oil on the skin before going to bed with a clean cotton pad. The oil will reduce the redness and swelling of the acne spots over time. To prevent future blemishes, wash your face with warm water first. The pores will open. Massage a small amount of oil (just a few drops) into the skin. It is best to let the natural oil soak in overnight. Wash the face in the morning and rinse off the oil. Rosehipolie can help prevent acne. The vitamin A in the rosehip oil helps prevent excessive sebum production in the skin. When the skin produces less sebum, blackheads and other skin impurities such as acne are prevented.In addition to preventing acne, the oil is also particularly effective at treating acne scars. In particular, dark (old) acne scars fade when using rosehip oil.
If the above doesn't help with your acne, there are a few over-the-counter acne medications available. Most of these medications contain ingredients that can help kill bacteria (propionibacterium acnes) or reduce excess sebum production on your skin. Some of these drugs have an anti-inflammatory effect. These include:
- Benzoyl peroxide is present in many acne creams and gels. It is used to dry out existing red pimples and red bumps and prevent new ones. Benzoyl peroxide also kills bacteria that cause acne (propionibacterium acnes)
- Sulphur is a natural ingredient with a distinctive odor found in some lotions, cleansers and masks.
- Resorcinol is a less common ingredient used to remove dead skin cells.
- Salicylic acid is often used in soaps and acne. It helps prevent pores from clogging and prevents excessive sebum production.
Sometimes people with a skin condition continue to experience symptoms despite various acne treatments. If this happens, it is best to seek medical advice for acne treatments specifically targeting your skin. Your doctor can prescribe medications that can help reduce your symptoms and prevent acne scarring. These include:
- Topical or oral antibiotics have an anti-inflammatory effect and kill the bacteria that cause pimples. Usually antibiotics are only used for a short time so that your body does not build up a resistance and you are prone to infections.
- Creams such as prescription retinoic acid or benzoyl peroxide are often stronger than over-the-counter treatments. They work to reduce excess sebum production. Benzoyl peroxide serves as a bactericidal agent that prevents the resistance of acne-causing bacteria to antibiotics. It also has moderate comedone-destroying and anti-inflammatory properties.
- Women with hormonal acne can be treated with birth control pills or spironolactone. These drugs regulate hormones that can cause acne by decreasing oil production.
- Isotretinoin (Accutane) is a vitamin A-based medication used to treat certain cases of severe nodular acne. It can cause serious side effects and is only used when other treatments do not work.
Your doctor can recommend procedures to treat severe acne and prevent scarring. These procedures work by removing damaged skin and reducing oil production. They contain:
- Photodynamic therapy uses medication and a special light or laser to reduce oil production and bacteria. Other lasers can only be used to help improve acne or scars.
- Dermabrasion removes the top layers of your skin with a rotating brush and is best for treating acne scars as opposed to acne treatment. Microdermabrasion is a milder treatment that helps remove dead skin cells.
- A chemical peel removes the top layers of your skin. That skin peels off to reveal less damaged skin underneath. Chemical peels can improve mild acne scars.
Your doctor may recommend that you use cortisone injections if your acne consists of large cysts. Cortisone is a steroid naturally produced by your body. It can reduce inflammation and speed up healing. Cortisone is usually used along with other acne treatments.
What is the outlook for someone with acne?
Treatment for acne is often successful Most people can expect their acne to clear up within six to eight weeks. However, flare-ups are common and may require additional or long-term treatment. Isotretinoin is the treatment that will provide the most permanent or long-lasting positive results. Acne scars can cause emotional stress and deteriorate mental health. But prompt treatment can help prevent scarring. Also, a dermatologist or medical specialist has treatment options designed to treat scars.
How can acne be prevented?
Acne is difficult to prevent. But you can take steps at home to help prevent acne after treatment. For example:
- wash your face twice a day with an oil-free cleanser
- use an over-the-counter acne cream to remove excess oil
- avoid makeup containing oil
- remove make-up and thoroughly cleanse your skin before going to sleep
- showering after exercise
- avoid tight-fitting clothes
- healthy food with a low glycemic index
- reduce stress
- prevent poor hygiene
Talk to your doctor or a healthcare professional to learn more about strategies for treating your acne.†